AskDefine | Define write

The Collaborative Dictionary

Write \Write\, v. t. [imp. Wrote; p. p. Written; Archaic imp. & p. p. Writ; p. pr. & vb. n. Writing.] [OE. writen, AS. wr[imac]tan; originally, to scratch, to score; akin to OS. wr[imac]tan to write, to tear, to wound, D. rijten to tear, to rend, G. reissen, OHG. r[imac]zan, Icel. r[imac]ta to write, Goth. writs a stroke, dash, letter. Cf. Race tribe, lineage.] [1913 Webster]
To set down, as legible characters; to form the conveyance of meaning; to inscribe on any material by a suitable instrument; as, to write the characters called letters; to write figures. [1913 Webster]
To set down for reading; to express in legible or intelligible characters; to inscribe; as, to write a deed; to write a bill of divorcement; hence, specifically, to set down in an epistle; to communicate by letter. [1913 Webster] Last night she enjoined me to write some lines to one she loves. --Shak. [1913 Webster] I chose to write the thing I durst not speak To her I loved. --Prior. [1913 Webster]
Hence, to compose or produce, as an author. [1913 Webster] I purpose to write the history of England from the accession of King James the Second down to a time within the memory of men still living. --Macaulay. [1913 Webster]
To impress durably; to imprint; to engrave; as, truth written on the heart. [1913 Webster]
To make known by writing; to record; to prove by one's own written testimony; -- often used reflexively. [1913 Webster] He who writes himself by his own inscription is like an ill painter, who, by writing on a shapeless picture which he hath drawn, is fain to tell passengers what shape it is, which else no man could imagine. --Milton. [1913 Webster] To write to, to communicate by a written document to. Written laws, laws deriving their force from express legislative enactment, as contradistinguished from unwritten, or common, law. See the Note under Law, and Common law, under Common, a. [1913 Webster]
Write \Write\, v. i.
To form characters, letters, or figures, as representative of sounds or ideas; to express words and sentences by written signs. --Chaucer. [1913 Webster] So it stead you, I will write, Please you command. --Shak. [1913 Webster]
To be regularly employed or occupied in writing, copying, or accounting; to act as clerk or amanuensis; as, he writes in one of the public offices. [1913 Webster]
To frame or combine ideas, and express them in written words; to play the author; to recite or relate in books; to compose. [1913 Webster] They can write up to the dignity and character of the authors. --Felton. [1913 Webster]
To compose or send letters. [1913 Webster] He wrote for all the Jews that went out of his realm up into Jewry concerning their freedom. --1 Esdras iv.
[1913 Webster]

Word Net

write

Verb

1 produce a literary work; "She composed a poem"; "He wrote four novels" [syn: compose, pen, indite]
2 communicate or express by writing; "Please write to me every week"
3 have (one's written work) issued for publication; "How many books did Georges Simenon write?"; "She published 25 books during her long career" [syn: publish]
4 communicate (with) in writing; "Write her soon, please!" [syn: drop a line]
5 communicate by letter; "He wrote that he would be coming soon"
6 write music; "Beethoven composed nine symphonies" [syn: compose]
7 mark or trace on a surface; "The artist wrote Chinese characters on a big piece of white paper"
8 record data on a computer; "boot-up instructions are written on the hard disk"
9 write or name the letters that comprise the conventionally accepted form of (a word or part of a word); "He spelled the word wrong in this letter" [syn: spell] [also: wrote, written]

Moby Thesaurus

adapt, arrange, assemble, author, book, bring to life, build, calendar, carve, cast, catalog, catch a likeness, chalk, chalk up, character, characterize, chart, check in, chronicle, coauthor, collaborate, communicate with, compose, compound, concoct, construct, copy, copy out, correspond, correspond with, create, cut, dash off, delineate, depict, describe, devise, diagram, docket, draft, draw, draw up, drop a line, edit, editorialize, elaborate, enface, engrave, engross, enroll, enscroll, enter, erect, evoke, evolve, exchange letters, express, extrude, fabricate, fashion, file, fill out, form, formulate, frame, free-lance, fudge together, get up, ghost, ghostwrite, give words to, grave, harmonize, hit off, impanel, incise, index, indite, inscribe, insert, instrument, instrumentate, jot, jot down, knock off, knock out, limn, list, log, make, make a memorandum, make a note, make a recension, make an adaptation, make an entry, make out, make up, manufacture, map, mark down, matriculate, mature, melodize, minute, mold, musicalize, notate, note, note down, novelize, orchestrate, outline, paint, pamphleteer, patch together, pen, pencil, picture, picturize, piece together, place upon record, poll, portray, post, post up, prefabricate, prepare, print, produce, push the pen, put down, put in writing, put on paper, put on tape, put to music, put together, put up, raise, rear, recense, record, reduce to writing, register, render, represent, revise, rewrite, rub, run up, scenarize, schematize, score, scratch, scrawl, scribble, scribe, scrive, scroll, send a note, set, set down, set forth, set to music, set up, shape, sketch, spill ink, spoil paper, superscribe, symbolize, tabulate, take a rubbing, take down, tape, tape-record, throw on paper, trace, trace out, trace over, transcribe, transpose, type, use the mails, videotape, whomp up, write down, write in, write out, write to, write up

English

Etymology

etyl ang writan, from , possibly from rītsan, rīzan, meaning to scratch or mark. Cognate with Dutch rijten, German ritzen

Pronunciation

  • , /ɹaɪt/, /raIt/
  • Rhymes with: -aɪt

Homophones

Verb

  1. In the context of "transitive|intransitive": To form letters, words or symbols on a surface in order to communicate.
    The pupil wrote his name on the paper.
    Your son has been writing on the wall.
  2. To be the author of (a book, article, poem, etc.).
    My uncle writes newspaper articles for The Herald.
  3. In the context of "transitive|US": To send a letter to.
    Please write me when you get there.
  4. Show facts, to make things clear.
    The due day of the homework is written in the syllabus.
  5. To be an author.
    I write for a living.
  6. In the context of "intransitive|computing": record data by a machine, especially for spindols.
    The write speed of the disk is usually lower than the read speed.

Synonyms

to form letters, etc.
to be the author of
to send a letter to
to show facts
to be an author
to record data
  • Czech: zapisovat
  • Finnish: kirjoittaa
  • Icelandic: skrifa
  • Japanese: 書込む (かきこむ, kakikomu)
  • Portuguese: escrever
  • Spanish: anotar, apuntar

References

Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system). It is distinguished from illustration, such as cave drawing and painting, and the recording of language via a non-textual medium such as magnetic tape audio.
Writing began as a consequence of the burgeoning needs of accounting. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form (Robinson, 2003, p. 36).

Writing as a category

Writing, more particularly, refers to two things: writing as a noun, the thing that is written; and writing as a verb, which designates the activity of writing. It refers to the inscription of characters on a medium, thereby forming words, and larger units of language, known as texts. It also refers to the creation of meaning and the information thereby generated. In that regard, linguistics (and related sciences) distinguishes between the written language and the spoken language. The significance of the medium by which meaning and information is conveyed is indicated by the distinction made in the arts and sciences. For example, while public speaking and poetry reading are both types of speech, the former is governed by the rules of rhetoric and the latter by poetics.
A person who composes a message or story in the form of text is generally known as a writer or an author. However, more specific designations exist which are dictated by the particular nature of the text such as that of poet, essayist, novelist, playwright, journalist, and more. A person who transcribes, translates or produces text to deliver a message authored by another person is known as a scribe, typist or typesetter. A person who produces text with emphasis on the aesthetics of glyphs is known as a calligrapher or graphic designer.
Writing is also a distinctly human activity. It has been said that a monkey, randomly typing away on a typewriter (in the days when typewriters replaced the pen or plume as the preferred instrument of writing) could re-create Shakespeare-- but only if it lived long enough (this is known as the infinite monkey theorem). Such writing has been speculatively designated as coincidental. It is also speculated that extra-terrestrial beings exist who may possess knowledge of writing. The fact is that the only known writing is human writing.

Means for recording information

Wells argues that writing has the ability to "put agreements, laws, commandments on record. It made the growth of states larger than the old city states possible. The command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death" (Wells in Robinson, 2003, p. 35).

Writing systems

The major writing systems – methods of inscription – broadly fall into four categories: logographic, syllabic, alphabetic, and featural. Another category, ideographic (symbols for ideas), has never been developed sufficiently to represent language. A sixth category, pictographic, is insufficient to represent language on its own, but often forms the core of logographies.

Logographies

A logogram is a written character which represents a word or morpheme. The vast number of logograms needed to write language, and the many years required to learn them, are the major disadvantage of the logographic systems over alphabetic systems. However, the efficiency of reading logographic writing once it is learned is a major advantage. No writing system is wholly logographic: all have phonetic components as well as logograms ("logosyllabic" components in the case of Chinese characters, cuneiform, and Mayan, where a glyph may stand for a morpheme, a syllable, or both; "logoconsonantal" in the case of hieroglyphs), and many have an ideographic component (Chinese "radicals", hieroglyphic "determiners"). For example, in Mayan, the glyph for "fin", pronounced "ka'", was also used to represent the syllable "ka" whenever the pronunciation of a logogram needed to be indicated, or when there was no logogram. In Chinese, about 90% of characters are compounds of a semantic (meaning) element called a radical with an existing character to indicate the pronunciation, called a phonetic. However, such phonetic elements complement the logographic elements, rather than vice versa.
The main logographic system in use today is Chinese characters, used with some modification for various languages of China, Japanese, and, to a lesser extent, Korean in South Korea. Another is the classical Yi script.

Syllabaries

A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables. A glyph in a syllabary typically represents a consonant followed by a vowel, or just a vowel alone, though in some scripts more complex syllables (such as consonant-vowel-consonant, or consonant-consonant-vowel) may have dedicated glyphs. Phonetically related syllables are not so indicated in the script. For instance, the syllable "ka" may look nothing like the syllable "ki", nor will syllables with the same vowels be similar.
Syllabaries are best suited to languages with relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. Other languages that use syllabic writing include the Linear B script for Mycenaean Greek; Cherokee; Ndjuka, an English-based creole language of Surinam; and the Vai script of Liberia. Most logographic systems have a strong syllabic component. Ethiopic, though technically an alphabet, has fused consonants and vowels together to the point that it's learned as if it were a syllabary.

Alphabets

see also History of the alphabet
An alphabet is a small set of symbols, each of which roughly represents or historically represented a phoneme of the language. In a perfectly phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling. As languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.
In most of the alphabets of the Mid-East, only consonants are indicated, or vowels may be indicated with optional diacritics. Such systems are called abjads. In most of the alphabets of India and Southeast Asia, vowels are indicated through diacritics or modification of the shape of the consonant. These are called abugidas. Some abugidas, such as Ethiopic and Cree, are learned by children as syllabaries, and so are often called "syllabics". However, unlike true syllabaries, there is not an independent glyph for each syllable.
Sometimes the term "alphabet" is restricted to systems with separate letters for consonants and vowels, such as the Latin alphabet. Because of this use, Greek is often considered to be the first alphabet.

Featural scripts

A featural script notates the building blocks of the phonemes that make up a language. For instance, all sounds pronounced with the lips ("labial" sounds) may have some element in common. In the Latin alphabet, this is accidentally the case with the letters "b" and "p"; however, labial "m" is completely dissimilar, and the similar-looking "q" is not labial. In Korean hangul, however, all four labial consonants are based on the same basic element. However, in practice, Korean is learned by children as an ordinary alphabet, and the featural elements tend to pass unnoticed.
Another featural script is SignWriting, the most popular writing system for many sign languages, where the shapes and movements of the hands and face are represented iconically. Featural scripts are also common in fictional or invented systems, such as Tolkien's Tengwar.

Historical significance of writing systems

Historians draw a distinction between prehistory and history, with history defined by the advent of writing. The cave paintings and petroglyphs of prehistoric peoples can be considered precursors of writing, but are not considered writing because they did not represent language directly.
Writing systems always develop and change based on the needs of the people who use them. Sometimes the shape, orientation and meaning of individual signs also changes over time. By tracing the development of a script it is possible to learn about the needs of the people who used the script as well as how it changed over time.

Tools and materials

The many tools and writing materials used throughout history include stone tablets, clay tablets, wax tablets, vellum, parchment, paper, copperplate, styluses, quills, ink brushes, pencils, pens, and many styles of lithography. It is speculated that the Incas might have employed knotted threads known as quipu (or khipu) as a writing system.
For more information see writing implements.

History of early writing

By definition, history begins with written records; evidence of human culture without writing is the realm of prehistory.
The evolution of writing was a process involving economic necessity in the ancient near east. Archaeologist Denise Schmandt-Besserat determined the link between previously uncategorized clay "tokens" and the first known writing, cuneiform. The clay tokens were used to represent commodities, and perhaps even units of time spent in labor, and their number and type became more complex as civilization advanced. A degree of complexity was reached when over a hundred different kinds of tokens had to be accounted for, and tokens were wrapped and fired in clay, with markings to indicate the kind of tokens inside. These markings soon replaced the tokens themselves, and the clay envelopes were demonstrably the prototype for clay writing tablets. this had evolved into using a triangular-shaped stylus pressed into soft clay for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform), at first only for logograms, but evolved to include phonetic elements by the 29th century BC. Around the 26th century BC, cuneiform began to represent syllables of spoken Sumerian. Also in that period, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers, and this script was adapted to another Mesopotamian language, Akkadian, and from there to others such as Hurrian, and Hittite. Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian.

Turkmenistan

An unknown civilization in Central Asia 4,000 years ago, hundreds of years before Chinese writing developed. An excavation near Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan, revealed an inscription on a piece of stone that was used as a stamp seal.

China

In China historians have found out a lot about the early Chinese dynasties from the written documents left behind. From the Shang Dynasty most of this writing has survived on bones or bronze implements. Markings on turtle shells have been carbon-dated to around 1500 BC. Historians have found that the type of media used had an effect on what the writing was documenting and how it was used.
There have recently been discoveries of tortoise-shell carvings dating back to c. 6000 BC, but whether or not the carvings are of sufficient complexity to qualify as writing is under debate. If it is deemed to be a written language, writing in China will predate Mesopotamian cuneiform, long acknowledged as the first appearance of writing, by some 2000 years.

Egypt

The earliest known hieroglyphic inscriptions are the Narmer Palette, dating to c.3200 BC, and several recent discoveries that may be slightly older, though the glyphs were based on a much older artistic tradition. The hieroglyphic script was logographic with phonetic adjuncts that included an effective alphabet.
Writing was very important in maintaining the Egyptian empire, and literacy was concentrated among an educated elite of scribes. Only people from certain backgrounds were allowed to train to become scribes, in the service of temple, pharaonic, and military authorities. The hieroglyph system was always difficult to learn, but in later centuries was purposely made even more so, as this preserved the scribes' status.
The world's oldest known alphabet was developed in central Egypt around 2000 BC from a hieroglyphic prototype, and over the next 500 years spread to Canaan and eventually to the rest of the world.

Indus Valley

The Indus Valley script is a mysterious aspect of ancient Indian culture as it has not yet been deciphered. All known inscriptions are short.

Phoenician writing system and descendants

The Phoenician writing system was adapted from the Proto-Caananite script in around the 11th century BC, which in turn borrowed ideas from Egyptian hieroglyphics. This writing system was an abjad — that is, a writing system in which only consonants are represented. This script was adapted by the Greeks, who adapted certain consonantal signs to represent their vowels. The Cumae alphabet, a variant of the early Greek alphabet gave rise to the Etruscan alphabet, and its own descendants, such as the Latin alphabet and Runes. Other descendants from the Greek alphabet include the Cyrillic alphabet, used to write Russian, among others. The Phoenician system was also adapted into the Aramaic script, from which the Hebrew script and also that of Arabic are descended.
The Tifinagh script (Berber languages) is descended from the Libyco-Berber script which is assumed to be of Phoenician origin.

Mesoamerica

A stone slab with 3,000-year-old writing was discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about 500 BC.
Of several pre-Colombian scripts in Mesoamerica, the one that appears to have been best developed, and the only one to be deciphered, is the Maya script. The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD. Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs, somewhat similar in function to modern Japanese writing.

Creation of text or information

Creativity

Author

Writer

Critiques

Writers sometimes search out others to evaluate or criticize their work. To this end, many writers join writing circles, often found at local libraries or bookstores. With the evolution of the Internet, writing circles have started to go online.

See also

References

Further reading

External links

write in Arabic: كتابة
write in Official Aramaic (700-300 BCE): ܟܬܒܐ
write in Catalan: Escriptura
write in German: Schreiben
write in Spanish: Escritura
write in Esperanto: Skribado
write in French: Écriture
write in Croatian: Pisanje
write in Ido: Skriburo
write in Indonesian: Menulis
write in Icelandic: Skrift
write in Italian: Scrittura
write in Hebrew: כתיבה
write in Hungarian: Írás
write in Malay (macrolanguage): Penulisan
write in Dutch: Schrift
write in Japanese: 筆記
write in Korean: 쓰기
write in Latvian: Rakstība
write in Norwegian: Skriving
write in Norwegian Nynorsk: skrift
write in Polish: Pismo
write in Portuguese: Escrita
write in Romanian: Scriere
write in Russian: Письменность
write in Simple English: Writing
write in Serbian: Писање
write in Finnish: Kirjoitus
write in Swedish: Skrift
write in Thai: การเขียน
write in Turkish: Yazı
write in Ukrainian: Писемність
write in Yiddish: שרייבן
write in Samogitian: Rašėms
write in Chinese: 寫作
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